The Many Faces of Alexander Hamilton: The Life and Legacy of America’s Most Elusive Founding Father
Account Options Connexion. Douglas Ambrose , Robert W. NYU Press , 1 avr. Droits d'auteur. And, in short, let it become the political religion of the nation Page - Any people anywhere, being inclined and having the power, have the right to rise up and shake off the existing government, and form a new one that suits them better.
This is a most valuable, a most sacred right — a right which, we hope and believe, is to liberate the world. Page - The legitimate object of government is to do for a community of people whatever they need to have done, but cannot do at all, or cannot so well do.
- Andrew Jackson.
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Page - In a nation of philosophers, this consideration ought to be disregarded. A reverence for the laws would be sufficiently inculcated by the voice of an enlightened reason. But a nation of philosophers is as little to be expected as the philosophical race of kings wished for by Plato.
The Many Faces of Alexander Hamilton: The Life and Legacy of America's Most - Google книги
DiLorenzo, Thomas J. New York: Crown Forum, Elkins, Stanley M. The Age of Federalism. New York: Oxford University Press, Ellis, Joseph J. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation.
New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Federalists Reconsidered.
Edited by Doron S. Ben-Atar and Barbara Oberg. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, Fleming, Thomas J. New York: Basic Books, Freeman, Joanne. New Haven: Yale University Press, Hacker, Louis M. Alexander Hamilton in the American Tradition. New York: McGraw-Hill, Hamilton, Alexander. Edited by Joanne B. Along with his close friend John Jay , he was active in anti- slavery movements. He was also chosen by the legislature as a delegate to the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention in along with Robert Yates and John Lansing, Jr.
Hamilton, alongside James Madison and James Wilson , voiced strong opposition to state's rights , decentralization , and limited government at the Constitutional Convention and favored a radically nationalist approach to American government. Hamilton believed that the central principle of the Articles of Confederation was the idea of state sovereignty, but he argued that this indicated that the entire idea was completely wrong. Because state sovereignty, "the fundamental principle of the old Confederation," was wholly defective, Hamilton argued that America's only choice was to "eradicate and discard this principle before we can expect an efficient government.
During the Convention, Hamilton argued for the most heavily centralized plan of government out of all of the attendees. He proposed making the chief executive an elected monarch who could not be removed from office unless he ceased to rule "in good behavior. The national government would have had the power to appoint all state governors and would wield absolute veto power over all state legislation. Hamilton's plan also gave a life-time tenure in office to senators and to the judiciary. With his plan considered as a whole, Hamilton "advocated virtually doing away with state sovereignty, noting that as long as there was power to be had in the states, people would aspire to acquire that power, to the detriment of the nation as a whole.
These essays, published anonymously in newspapers in New York and throughout the United States, helped turn popular opinion in favor of ratifying the Constitution, particularly in the decisive states of New York and Virginia. Perhaps Hamilton's greatest contribution to the success of the United States occurred during his tenure as Washington's Secretary of the Treasury from to Through a system of tariffs and excise taxes some of which, as demonstrated by the Whiskey Rebellion , caused a great deal of resentment , Hamilton placed the United States on sound financial footing.
While Hamilton disliked taxes, he also realized that they were necessary. Hamilton not only favored close trade ties with Great Britain , the world's leading commercial power, but he believed that the United States should emulate their economic system. In his Report on Manufactures, Hamilton envisioned the United States as a nation that would rely on manufacturing and commerce in order to become a great power.
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This among other things put him at odds with Thomas Jefferson , who envisioned the United States as an agrarian republic. In the summer of , Hamilton became the first major American politician publicly involved in an affair.
Six years earlier, in the summer of , year-old Hamilton started an affair with year-old Maria Reynolds; according to Hamilton's recount, Maria approached him at his house in Philadelphia, claiming that her husband, James Reynolds, had abandoned her and she wished to return to her relatives in New York but lacked the means.
The two began an illicit affair that lasted approximately until June Over the course of that year, James Reynolds was well aware of his wife's unfaithfulness. He continually supported their relationship in order to regularly gain blackmail money from Hamilton. Hamilton, at this point, was probably aware of both Reynoldses' being involved in the blackmail, and welcomed, as well as strictly complied with, Reynolds' request to end the affair.
In November , James Reynolds and his associate Jacob Clingman were arrested for counterfeiting and speculating in veteran back wages. Clingman was released on bail and relayed information to James Monroe that Reynolds had evidence that would incriminate Hamilton. Monroe consulted with Congressmen Muhlenberg and Venable on what actions to take and the Congressmen confronted Hamilton on December 15, Hamilton refuted the suspicions of speculation by exposing his affair with Maria and producing as evidence the letters by both Reynoldses, proving that his payments to James Reynolds related to blackmail over his adultery, and not to treasury misconduct.
The trio were to keep the documents privately with the utmost confidence. In the summer of , however, when "notoriously scurrilous journalist" James T. Callender published A History of the United States for the Year , it contained accusations of James Reynolds being an agent of Hamilton, using documents from the confrontation of December 15, On July 5, , Hamilton wrote to Monroe, Muhlenberg and Venable asking them to confirm that there was nothing that would damage the perception of his integrity while Secretary of Treasury.
Muhlenberg and Venable complied with Hamilton's request but Monroe didn't, and after several rounds of argument, the two almost resorted to a duel. When Hamilton did not obtain an explicit response from Monroe, he published a page pamphlet, later usually referred to as the Reynolds Pamphlet , in order to preserve his public reputation, discussing the affair in exquisite detail. His wife Elizabeth eventually forgave him. Hamilton saw the need for political newspapers and subsidized numerous editors, most famously Noah Webster. Jefferson repeatedly attacked Hamilton as an enemy of American values —and Jeffersonians have echoed the criticism over the centuries.
Jefferson said he was an enemy of popular government, did not believe in republicanism , admired the British system too much, and even wanted to set up a monarchy. Since the s scholars have rescued rescue Hamilton from these interpretations and stressed his republicanism, arguing that Jefferson went too far in his attacks.
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