Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology)

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If for example you were talking to someone about their new job and they said "its great, great, I love it" you would assume they were having a great time. However if you included sarcastic tone and facial grimace then a completely different message is construed. It is therefore important to include these when necessary. Tidying up transcripts is something easy to accidentally do.

Spoken English is very different to the written form. It is always messier, broken and the pace looks odd when written down. It is always tempting to correct mistakes when transcribing the information however it is not the job of a transcript to do this.

Perhaps phrases such as inaudible - perhaps "time of day" or unclear, a name would be more accurate and suitable for transcription purposes. Technical terms are also challenging and abbreviations should be avoided. Ensure the participants avoid them, or if they do, be sure to ask what they mean. If they are unavoidable a glossary of terms would be appropriate. Thematic analysis reviews all of the data to identify common ideas which reoccur and identify these as themes that summarise the collected views of participants.

The idea of this stage is to begin to identify the parts of the transcripts which will most likely help to answer your research question. It is always a good idea to read through the transcript several times to familiarise yourself with the work so as not to lose context when referring back in the future and to understand the whole meaning.

Next highlight anything you feel will help you understand the views, opinions and beliefs of the participants and add comments next to them to explore the findings further.


A colour scheme or numbering may be beneficial to connect ideas together and make it easier to find them. Double spacing the transcripts may help de-clutter the page and allow room for notes or using an annotation software package. Once you have lots of comments and highlighted text, you may find codes emerging from the comments. Make sure they are close to the data and avoid speculation.

Try not to incorporate every single piece of text or comment but only the salient points and use short phrases or abbreviations for your themes such as: A-Level Chemistry or Self-confidence building. You can merge comments and codes if they are reoccurring or if they overlap considerably.

This process is then repeated with the next transcript, adding the interview extracts, comments and themes to your already collected data. When moving from transcript to transcript you may have to return and edit your earlier themes or comments because of new emerging data.

Social science

This is good practice and demonstrates free-flowing idea development and adaptation. The goal of stage 2 is to take the common codes found from stage 1 and focus on your interpretation of them. You can achieve this by grouping together the codes that share a similar concept or meaning and create a single code which captures it. If you are a psychologist you would at this stage be fitting the codes into areas of cognitive behavioural therapy CBT or psychological thinking by for example recognising troubling thoughts or ideas.

The idea is to move on from descriptive findings to what they appear to mean just below the surface. This too should be a process which will need to be repeated again and again until you have reached the point at which new ideas are not emerging. Stage 3 - Defining Overarching Themes At the final stage the goal is to create overarching themes that characterise the key concepts found.

These should be built on the interpretive ideas formed and should delve deeper and be more abstract. Try and restrict the number of themes to , otherwise your findings will become diluted and lack clarity. It may be useful to create a diagram or tree showing how you came to your conclusions, this is also good practice for an audit trail and for readers to discover when your ideas came from. The end product of qualitative research will achieve the same as a quantitative piece, it may just look different.

Qualitative Research

The presentation may be different as well, with a lack of tables and graphs seeming foreign to some. Instead quotes, themes and new ideas emerge as a result of the analysis instead of percentages or numbers however qualitative data can be converted to numerical with the use of tallies or frequency of specific phrases being the focus.

The most common and arguably simplistic way to report on thematic analytical findings is to discuss each theme in turn referring to examples, quotes and characterising them to the reader. It is not necessary to include each quote in the report, only those which most strongly illustrate and describe the findings and answer your research question [16]. Critiquing research is integral to providing the best possible interventions in healthcare. Qualitative research has its own terminology and requirements to be seen as a rigorous and credible piece of work.

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The table below is an introduction to some of these concepts. The central structure of an experience is its intentionality, its being directed toward something, as it is an experience of or about some object. An experience is directed toward an object by virtue of its content or meaning which represents the object together with appropriate enabling conditions [23].

This contrasts with interview-based research in which interaction with respondents is limited to a conventional interview or group discussion format, is more limited in time, and often takes place outside the participant's own environment [24]. Inductive Theme Analysis -. Thematic analysis is used in qualitative research and focuses on examining themes within data. Although many call Grounded Theory a qualitative method, it is not.

It is a general method. It is the systematic generation of theory from systematic research. It is a set of rigorous research procedures leading to the emergence of conceptual categories. Grounded Theory can be used with either qualitative or quantitative data [26]. It is used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research. Qualitative Research is also used to uncover trends in thought and opinions, and dive deeper into the problem.

Qualitative data collection methods vary using unstructured or semi-structured techniques. The sample size is typically small, and respondents are selected to fulfill a given quota [29]. It is used to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and other defined variables — and generalize results from a larger sample population. Quantitative Research uses measurable data to formulate facts and uncover patterns in research.

Quantitative data collection methods are much more structured than Qualitative data collection methods. Quantitative data collection methods include various forms of surveys — online surveys, paper surveys, mobile surveys and kiosk surveys, face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, longitudinal studies, website interceptors, online polls, and systematic observations [29]. Credibility - Confidence in the 'truth' of the findings. Is it what the participants actually said or has the meaning been lost. Transferability - Showing that the findings have applicability in other contexts.

The qualitative form of generalizability [22]. The content on or accessible through Physiopedia is for informational purposes only. Physiopedia is not a substitute for professional advice or expert medical services from a qualified healthcare provider. Read more.

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Focuses on individual experiences, beliefs and perceptions Test used as a proxy for human experience. Questions and observations are aimed at drawing out individual experiences and perceptions In focus groups, group exeriences and normative perceptions are typically sought out In-depth interviews and focus groups are ideal methods for collecting phenomenological data. Questions and observations are generally related to social and cultural processes and shared meanings within a given group Traditionally associated with long-term fieldwork Participation observation is well suited to ethnographic inquiry.

Inductive data collection and analytic methods Uses systematic and exhaustive comparison of text-segments to build thematic structure and theory from a body of text Common analytic approach in qualitative studies. In-depth interviews and focus groups are the most common data collection techniques Sample sizes for grounded theory are more limited than for ITA because analytic process is more intensive and time consuming ITA and grounded theory are not the same. Analysis of one to several cases that are unique with respect to the research topic Analysis primarily focused on exploring the unique quality.

Case studies are selected based on a unique and sometimes rare quality Questions and observations should focus on the unique feature. Study of naturally occuring discoure - can range from conversation, public events, documents. Narratives used as data source Can be from several sources i. If generating narratives, then questions need to be aimed at eliciting stories and the importance those stories hold for participants as well as the larger culture. Defined as integrating qualitative and quantitative research methods in a single study Two most common methods are concurrent and sequential.

Collection of qualitative data in a mixed methods study can be informed from a wide range of theoretical perspectives and analytic approaches Researches must specify upfront and in details how, when and why qualitative and quantitative data will be integrated. Multiple realities Causes not distinguishable from effects Empathetic researcher Researher as an instrument Emphasis of the research endeavour.

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Time and context-bound experiences Not responsibility of 'sending' researcher Provision of information for 'recieving' researcher. Researcher as instrument Consistency in interpretation Multiple realities Idiosyncrasy of behaviour and context. Contains many explanatory diagrams and interesting examples drawn from scholarly literature. Covers " Writing a literature review" and " E thics" early in Chapter 5. Concludes with a chapter on writing a research report.

Appendix on Evaluation Research help students see how to apply research in practical settings. The Chapter on Survey Research Ch. The politics of research are discussed in the context of writing a literature report Ch.

Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology) Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology)
Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology) Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology)
Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology) Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology)
Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology) Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology)
Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology) Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology)
Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology) Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology)
Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology) Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology)
Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology) Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology)
Ethics in Social Research: 12 (Studies in Qualitative Methodology)

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